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A separation minimum shall be applied between a light or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed ? Test > topography

exemple question 118
Pans atm doc4444 a separation minimum of 2 minutes shall be applied between a light or medium aircraft a heavy aircraft between a light aircraft a medium aircraft when heavier aircraft making a low or missed approach the lighter aircraft is a) utilizing an opposite direction runway take off or b) landing on same runway in opposite direction or on a parallel opposite direction runway separated less than 760 m (2500 ft) .


A so called 'Visual Approach' can be performed ?

exemple question 119
A so called 'visual approach' can be performed During ifr flights if there permanent sight on movement area the underlying ground. doc 4444 icao pans atm definitions visual approach an approach an ifr flight when either part or all of an instrument approach procedure not completed the approach executed in visual reference to terrain 6 5 3 visual approach 6 5 3 1 clearance an ifr flight to execute a visual approach may be requested a flight crew or initiated the controller in latter case concurrence of flight crew shall be required 6 5 3 2 controllers shall exercise caution in initiating a visual approach when there reason to believe that flight crew concerned not familiar with aerodrome its surrounding terrain controllers should also take into consideration prevailing traffic meteorological conditions when initiating visual approaches 6 5 3 3 an ifr flight may be cleared to execute a visual approach provided pilot can maintain visual reference to terrain and a) reported ceiling at or above level of beginning of initial approach segment the aircraft so cleared or b) pilot reports at level of beginning of initial approach segment or at any time during instrument approach procedure that meteorological conditions are such that with reasonable assurance a visual approach landing can be completed.


A Special Air Report comprises a number of sections In section I the pilot fills in ?

exemple question 120
A special air report comprises a number of sections in section i pilot fills in A position report including aircraft identification height position time. Pans atm doc4444 4 12 reporting of operational and meteorological information 4 12 1 general 4 12 1 1 when operational and/or routine meteorological information to be reported using data link an aircraft en route at times where position reports are required in accordance with 4 11 1 1 4 11 1 2 position report shall be given in accordance with 4 11 5 2 (requirements concerning transmission of meteorological information from ads c equipped aircraft) or in form of a routine air report special aircraft observations shall be reported as special air reports all air reports shall be reported as soon as practicable 4 12 3 3 when voice communications are used special air reports shall contain following elements message type designator section 1 position information 1) aircraft identification 2) position 3) time 4) flight level or altitude.


exemple question 121
A strayed aircraft An aircraft which has deviated significantly from its intended track or which reports that it lost. Pans atm doc4444 4 12 reporting of operational and meteorological information 4 12 1 general 4 12 1 1 when operational and/or routine meteorological information to be reported using data link an aircraft en route at times where position reports are required in accordance with 4 11 1 1 4 11 1 2 position report shall be given in accordance with 4 11 5 2 (requirements concerning transmission of meteorological information from ads c equipped aircraft) or in form of a routine air report special aircraft observations shall be reported as special air reports all air reports shall be reported as soon as practicable 4 12 3 3 when voice communications are used special air reports shall contain following elements message type designator section 1 position information 1) aircraft identification 2) position 3) time 4) flight level or altitude.


exemple question 122
A vfr flight when flying inside an ats airspace classified as b has to maintain following minima of flight visibility and distance from clouds 5 km below 3 5 m ( ft) ams 5 m horizontal 3 m vertical from clouds. sera 5001 vmc visibility distance from cloud minima * when height of transition altitude lower than 3050 m (10000 ft) amsl fl 100 shall be used in lieu of 10000 ft ** when so prescribed the appropriate ats authority a) flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1 500 m may be permitted flights operating (1) at speeds of 140 kts ias or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision or (2) in circumstances in which probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low e g in areas of low volume traffic for aerial work at low levels (b) helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 m but not less than 800 m flight visibility if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision flight visibilities lower than 800 m may be permitted special cases such as medical flights search rescue operations fire fighting *** the vmc minima in class a airspace are included guidance to pilots do not imply acceptance of vfr flights in class a airspace.


exemple question 123
A vfr flight when flying inside an ats airspace classified as c has to maintain following minima of flight visibility and distance from clouds 8 km at or above 3 5 m ( ft) amsl 5 m horizontal 3 m vertical from clouds. sera 5001 vmc visibility distance from cloud minima * when height of transition altitude lower than 3050 m (10000 ft) amsl fl 100 shall be used in lieu of 10000 ft ** when so prescribed the appropriate ats authority a) flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1 500 m may be permitted flights operating (1) at speeds of 140 kts ias or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision or (2) in circumstances in which probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low e g in areas of low volume traffic for aerial work at low levels (b) helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 m but not less than 800 m flight visibility if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision flight visibilities lower than 800 m may be permitted special cases such as medical flights search rescue operations fire fighting *** the vmc minima in class a airspace are included guidance to pilots do not imply acceptance of vfr flights in class a airspace.


exemple question 124
According to international agreements wind direction shall be adjusted to local variation and given in degrees magnetic Before landing take off. sera 5001 vmc visibility distance from cloud minima * when height of transition altitude lower than 3050 m (10000 ft) amsl fl 100 shall be used in lieu of 10000 ft ** when so prescribed the appropriate ats authority a) flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1 500 m may be permitted flights operating (1) at speeds of 140 kts ias or less to give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision or (2) in circumstances in which probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low e g in areas of low volume traffic for aerial work at low levels (b) helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 m but not less than 800 m flight visibility if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision flight visibilities lower than 800 m may be permitted special cases such as medical flights search rescue operations fire fighting *** the vmc minima in class a airspace are included guidance to pilots do not imply acceptance of vfr flights in class a airspace.


8
Aerodrome control service priority landing if an aircraft enters traffic circuit without proper authorisation It shall be permitted to land if its actions indicate that it so desires. Doc4444 procedures air navigation services air traffic management (pans atm) 7 7 3 priority landing 7 7 3 1 if an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper authorization it shall be permitted to land if its actions indicate that it so desires if circumstances warrant aircraft which are in contact with controller may be instructed the controller to give way so as to remove as soon as possible hazard introduced such unauthorized operation in no case shall permission to land be with held indefinitely 7 7 3 2 in cases of emergency it may be necessary in interests of safety an aircraft to enter a traffic circuit effect a landing without proper authorization controllers should recognize possibilities of emergency action render all assistance possible.


9
Air traffic control service provided the purpose of Preventing collisions between aircraft between aircraft obstacles on manoeuvring area expediting maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. Annex 11 air traffic services 2 2 objectives of air traffic services the objectives of air traffic services shall be to a) prevent collisions between aircraft b) prevent collisions between aircraft on manoeuvring area obstructions on that area c) expedite maintain an orderly flow of air traffic d) provide advice information useful the safe efficient conduct of flights e) notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search rescue aid assist such organizations as required.


10
Air traffic service unit means Air traffic control units flight information centres or air services reporting offices. Annex 11 air traffic service unit a generic term meaning variously air traffic control units flight information centres or air services reporting offices air traffic control units a generic term meaning variously aera control centre approach control unit or aerodrome control tower flight information centres a unit established to provide flight information service alerting service air services reporting offices a unit established the purpose of receiving reports concerning air traffic services flight plans submitted before departure.


11
Air traffic services unit clocks and other time recording devices shall be checked as necessary to ensure correct time to within plus or minus 3 seconds of utc at all times. Annex 11 air traffic services 2 25 time in air traffic services 2 25 3 air traffic services unit clocks other time recording devices shall be checked as necessary to ensure correct time to within plus or minus 30 seconds of utc wherever data link communications are utilized an air traffic services unit clocks other time recording devices shall be checked as necessary to ensure correct time to within 1 second of utc.


12
Aircraft flying along same track may be separated dme distances from same dme and it confirmed that aircraft have passed each other specify shortest difference in dme distance to make it possible one aircraft to climb or descend 3 seconds of utc at all times. Doc4444 pans atm 5 4 2 3 4 aircraft climbing and descending 5 4 2 3 4 1 aircraft on same track 19 km (10 nm) while vertical separation does not exist provided a) each aircraft utilizes i) same 'on track' dme station when both aircraft are utilizing dme or ii) an 'on track' dme station a collocated waypoint when one aircraft utilizing dme the other utilizing gnss or iii) same waypoint when both aircraft are utilizing gnss and b) one aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist and c) separation established obtaining simultaneous dme and/or gnss readings from aircraft (see figures below) .


13
Airspace classification servicesduring a 'visual approach' in controlled airspace class c Atc will provide separation with other traffic. visual approach an approach an ifr flight when either part or all of an instrument approach procedure not completed the approach executed in visual reference to terrain doc 4444 5 2 provisions for the separation of controlled traffic 5 2 1 general 5 2 1 1 vertical or horizontal separation shall be provided a) between all flights in class a b airspaces b) between ifr flights in class c d e airspaces c) between ifr flights vfr flights in class c airspace d) between ifr flights special vfr flights and e) between special vfr flights when so prescribed the appropriate ats authority .


14
Altimeter setting change during climb on flights in accordance with ifr change of altimeter setting from qnh to standard shall be made at Atc will provide separation with other traffic. Passing through transition layer refer to flight level in climb to altitude in descent in climb qnh to 1013 hpa at transition altitude in descent 1013 hpa to qnh at transition level 1013 hpa (standard) = fl qnh = altitude qfe = height.


15
The transition level Shall be lowest flight level available use above transition altitude. Passing through transition layer refer to flight level in climb to altitude in descent in climb qnh to 1013 hpa at transition altitude in descent 1013 hpa to qnh at transition level 1013 hpa (standard) = fl qnh = altitude qfe = height.


16
Altimeter setting procedures transition altitude the transition altitude of an aerodrome shall be as low as possible but normally not less than Shall be lowest flight level available use above transition altitude. Icao recommends that transition altitude should not be lower than 3 000ft note 'altitude are measured above msl (mean sea level) so transition altitude should not be lower than 3000ft the transition altitude should also take into account nature of terrain ensure that aircraft are not using flight levels too close to ground this means that transition altitude may be higher than 3000ft to take into account required terrain clearance.


17
Altimeter setting procedures transition layer unless instructed otherwise an air traffic controller when passing through transition layer a pilot shall report vertical position of aircraft as Altitude in a descent. When passing through transition layer you must report your vertical position as an altitude (your altimeter setting now local qnh) example in descent (if transition layer at 5000 ft) 'speedbird 123 descending from flight level 100 to altitude 4000 ft qnh' in climb you must report your vertical position as a flight level while crossing transition altitude (your altimeter setting now 1013 hpa).


18
Altimeter setting procedures transition level the vertical position of an aircraft at or above transition level with altimeter setting 1013 2 hpa has to be reported Altitude in a descent. Above transition layer you must report your vertical position as a flight level (your altimeter setting now 1013 hpa) below transition layer you must report your vertical position as an altitude (your altimeter setting now local qnh).


19
The transition level Will be passed to aircraft ats units. Above transition layer you must report your vertical position as a flight level (your altimeter setting now 1013 hpa) below transition layer you must report your vertical position as an altitude (your altimeter setting now local qnh).


20
An air traffic control unit May ask an aircraft to temporarily change its call sign safety reasons when there a risk of confusion between two or more similar call signs. Above transition layer you must report your vertical position as a flight level (your altimeter setting now 1013 hpa) below transition layer you must report your vertical position as an altitude (your altimeter setting now local qnh).



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