Free access to EASA ECQB 2022!


Visual signals Whilst flying in an aerodrome's traffic circuit the pilot of an aircraft observes a series of white flashes from the tower The meaning of this signal is ? Explanation > maintenance

exemple question 113
Land at this aerodrome proceed to apron.


After an aircraft has been intercepted in flight the intercepted aircraft is rocking its wings This means ?

exemple question 114
After an aircraft has been intercepted in flight intercepted aircraft rocking its wings this means Land at this aerodrome proceed to apron.


A circling approach is ?

exemple question 115
A circling approach A visual flight manoeuvre keeping runway in sight. doc 8168 chapter 7 visual manoeuvring (circling) area 7 1 purpose 7 2 visual flight manoeuvre 7 2 1 a circling approach a visual flight manoeuvre each circling situation different because of variables such as runway layout final approach track wind velocity meteorological conditions therefore there can be no single procedure designed that will cater conducting a circling approach in every situation 7 2 2 after initial visual contact basic assumption that runway environment should be kept in sight while at minimum descent altitude/height (mda/h) circling the runway environment includes features such as runway threshold or approach lighting aids or other markings identifiable with runway.


exemple question 116
Abbreviations what does abbreviation ois mean doc 8168 Obstacle identification surface. Ois obstacle identification surface.


exemple question 118
At fl 110 maximum speed at which an aircraft can enter a holding pattern Obstacle identification surface. doc 8168 aircraft operations icao maximum holding speeds up to 14000 ft 230 kt 14000 ft to 20000 ft 240 kt 20000 ft to 34000 ft 265 kt above 34000 ft m 0 83.


exemple question 119
A descent or a climb conducted in a holding pattern called Obstacle identification surface. Icao doc 8168 3 3 8 shuttle a shuttle normally prescribed where descent required between end of initial approach the beginning of final approach exceeds values shown in table i 4 3 1 note a shuttle descent or climb conducted in a holding pattern.


exemple question 120
An approaching aircraft may descent below msa if All mentioned answers are correct. When in imc you should not descend below msa (minimum sector altitude as on chart) until established in approach or hold procedure as safe altitude based on correct entry procedure it will cover a certain aera of ground you may descend on radar vectors in accordance with a published approach procedure or if you have field the underlying terrain in sight you will keep it in sight.


8
Approach procedures arrival and approach segments intermediate approach segment what the minimum obstacle clearance requirement at end of primary area of intermediate approach segment in an instrument approach procedure 3 m (984 ft) reducing to 5 m (492 ft). doc 8168 chapter 4 intermediate approach segment this the segment during which aircraft speed configuration should be adjusted to prepare aircraft final approach for this reason descent gradient kept as shallow as possible during intermediate approach obstacle clearance requirement reduces from 300 m (984 ft) to 150 m (492 ft) in primary area reducing laterally to zero at outer edge of secondary area .


9
Approach procedures circling it permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent obstacle exists in visual manoeuvring circling area outside final approach and missed approach area when this option exercised published procedure Prohibits circling within total sector in which obstacle exists. A visual maneuvering (circling) area the area in which obstacle clearance should be taken into consideration aircraft carrying out a circling approach (icao) it the visual phase of flight after completing an instrument approach to bring an aircraft into position landing on a runway not suitably located a straight in approach the visual maneuvering area a circling approach determined drawing arcs centered on each runway threshold joining those arcs with tangent lines the radius of arcs related to aircraft category speed each category wind speed 25 knots (46 km/h) taken throughout turn the bank angle (20° average or 3°/s whichever requires less bank) it permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent obstacle exists in visual maneuvering (circling area outside final approach missed approach) area when this option exercised published procedure prohibits circling within total sector in which obstacle exists.


10
Approach procedures the term used to describe visual phase of flight after completing an instrument approach to bring an aircraft into position landing on a runway which not suitably located straight in approach Visual manoeuvring (circling). Doc 8168 chapter 7 visual manoeuvring (circling) area 7 1 purpose 7 1 1 visual manoeuvring (circling) the term used to describe phase of flight after an instrument approach has been completed it brings aircraft into position landing on a runway which not suitably located straight in approach i e one where criteria alignment or descent gradient cannot be met.


11
Approach procedures final approach segment in a precision approach ils generally glide path interception occurs at heights above runway elevation from Half a scale deflection after being established on track. doc 8168 chapter 5 final approach segment this the segment in which alignment descent landing are made final approach may be made to a runway a straight in landing or to an aerodrome a visual manoeuvre 5 5 5 protection of precision segment 5 5 5 1 the width of ils/mls/gbas final approach protection area much narrower than those of non precision approaches descent on glide path/mls elevation angle must never be initiated until aircraft within tracking tolerance of localizer/azimuth 5 5 5 2 the protection area assumes that pilot does not normally deviate from centre line more than halfscale deflection after being established on track thereafter aircraft should adhere to on course on glide path/elevation angle position since a more than half course sector deflection or a more than half course fly up deflection combined with other allowable system tolerances could place aircraft in vicinity of edge or bottom of protected airspace where loss of protection from obstacles can occur.


12
Approach procedures final approach segment in a precision approach ils final approach segment begins at Half a scale deflection after being established on track. Final approach that part of an instrument approach procedure which commences at specified final approach fix or point or where such a fix or point not specified a) at end of last procedure turn base turn or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure if specified or b) at point of interception of last track specified in approach procedure and ends at a point in vicinity of an aerodrome from which 1) a landing can be made or 2) a missed approach procedure initiated doc 8168 for a precision approach (ils mls etc) final approach segment begins at final approach point (fap) this a point in space on final approach track where intermediate approach altitude/height intercepts nominal glide path/microwave landing system(mls) elevation angle final approach fix (faf) refers to a non precision approach.


13
Approach procedures instrument approach area the primary area of an instrument approach segment A defined area symmetrically disposed about nominal flight track in which minimum obstacle clearance provided. Doc 8168 volume 1 chapter 1 definitions primary area a defined area symmetrically disposed about nominal flight track in which full obstacle clearance provided secondary area a defined area on each side of primary area located along nominal flight track in which decreasing obstacle clearance provided 1 3 areas 1 3 1 where track guidance provided in design of a procedure each segment comprises a specified volume of airspace vertical cross section of which an area located symmetrically about centre line of each segment the vertical cross section of each segment divided into primary secondary areas full obstacle clearances are applied over primary areas reducing to zero at outer edges of secondary areas (see figure i 2 1 2) 1 3 2 on straight segments width of primary area at any given point equal to one half of total width the width of each secondary area equal to one quarter of total width 1 3 3 where no track guidance provided during a turn specified the procedure total width of area considered primary area 1 3 4 the minimum obstacle clearance (moc) provided the whole width of primary area in secondary area moc provided at inner edges reducing to zero at outer edges (see figure i 2 1 2) .


14
Approach procedures mdh / och for a non precision or circling approach minimum descent height mdh cannot be lower than The obstacle clearance height (och). icao doc 8168 mdh minimum descent height och obstacle clearance height.


15
Approach procedures minimum sector altitudes / msa minimum sector altitudes are established each aerodrome the msa provides an obstacle clearance of at least 300 m 1000 ft within a circle associated with homing facility the approach procedure of that aerodrome how many nm the radius of this circle The obstacle clearance height (och). iaco doc 8168 minimum sector altitude the lowest altitude which may be used which will provide a minimum clearance of 300 m (1000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km (25 nm) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation msa on a final approach plate msa centered on dus vor.


16
Approach procedures missed approach phases a complete missed approach procedure consists of following phases Initial intermediate final. after having completed missed approach procedure you will have to restart approach at initial approach fix (iaf).


17
Approach procedures missed approach climb normally missed approach procedures are based on a nominal missed approach climb gradient of Initial intermediate final. icao doc 8168 aircraft operations chapter 6 6 1 7 1 normally procedures are based on a minimum missed approach climb gradient of 2 5.


18
Approach procedures non precision straight in a so called 'straight in approach' considered to be acceptable a non precision approach if angle between final approach track and runway centreline Initial intermediate final. icao doc 8168 1 2 instrument approach procedure 1 2 3 types of approach 1 2 3 1 there are two types of approach straight in circling 1 2 3 2 straight in approach wherever possible a straight in approach will be specified which aligned with runway centre line in case of non precision approaches a straight in approach considered acceptable if angle between final approach track the runway centre line 30° or less.


19
Approach procedures arrival and approach segments the minimum obstacle clearance in primary area of initial approach segment an instrument approach procedure at least Initial intermediate final. doc 8168 chapter 3 initial approach segment 3 1 3 minimum obstacle clearance the initial approach segment provides at least 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance in primary area reducing laterally to zero at outer edge of secondary area .


20
Approach segments in an instrument approach procedure segment in which alignment and descent landing are made called Final approach segment. The final approach segment the segment in which alignment descent landing are made the final approach may be made to a runway a landing or to an aerodrome a visual manoeuvre for a straight in approach angle formed the final approach track the runway centre line must not exceed 30° procedure restricted to cat a b aircraft only 15° other aircraft categories .



Exclusive rights: Content under private and protected license, reproduction prohibited and prosecuted.

179 Free Training Exam