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Arrival and Approach segments General What are the names of all separate segments that can be part of an instrument approach procedure ? Correction > orientation

exemple question 114
Arrival initial intermediate final missed approach.


Altimeter setting procedures The transition from altitude to flight level and vice versa is performed ?

exemple question 115
Altimeter setting procedures the transition from altitude to flight level and vice versa performed At transition altitude during climb at transition level during descent. When passing through transition layer you must report your vertical position as an altitude (your altimeter setting now local qnh) example in descent (if transition layer at 5000 ft) 'speedbird 123 descending from flight level 100 to altitude 4000 ft qnh' in climb you must report your vertical position as a flight level while crossing transition altitude (your altimeter setting now 1013 hpa).


Circling approach One of the conditions to descent below the MDA on a circling approach is ?

exemple question 116
Circling approach one of conditions to descent below mda on a circling approach The required visual references have been established can be maintained. You must have visual contact with airport before attempting a circle to land maneuver you must maintain visual contact with airport at all times while circling to land circling approach.


exemple question 118
Definitions icao doc 8168 what a turn executed the aircraft during initial approach between end of outbound track and beginning of intermediate or final approach track the tracks are not reciprocal The required visual references have been established can be maintained. doc 8168 base turn consisting of 1) a specified outbound track timing or dme distance from a facility followed by 2) a turn to intercept inbound track the outbound track and/or timing may be different the various categories of aircraft where this done separate procedures are published.


exemple question 119
Definitions what a manoeuvre in which a turn made away from a designated track followed a turn in opposite direction to permit aircraft to intercept and proceed along reciprocal of designated track called a The required visual references have been established can be maintained. doc 8168 base turn consisting of 1) a specified outbound track timing or dme distance from a facility followed by 2) a turn to intercept inbound track the outbound track and/or timing may be different the various categories of aircraft where this done separate procedures are published.


exemple question 120
Departure procedure design the main factor/s that dictate/s in general design of an instrument departure procedure is/are The terrain surrounding aerodrome. doc 8168 base turn consisting of 1) a specified outbound track timing or dme distance from a facility followed by 2) a turn to intercept inbound track the outbound track and/or timing may be different the various categories of aircraft where this done separate procedures are published.


exemple question 121
Dependent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that missed approach track one approach diverges At least 3 ° from missed approach track of adjacent approach. Pans atm doc4444 6 7 3 6 requirements and procedures for segregated parallel operations 6 7 3 6 1 segregated parallel operations may be conducted on parallel runways provided a) runway centre lines are spaced the distance specified in annex 14 volume i and b) the nominal departure track diverges immediately after take off at least 30 degrees from missed approach track of adjacent approach (see figure below) .


8
Final approach segmentduring a precision approach ils glide path interception occurs normally at heights above runway elevation between 3 m ( ft) to 9 m (3 ft). Typically glide path / mls elevation angle interception occurs at heights from 300 m (1000 ft) to 900 m (3000 ft) above runway elevation in that case on a 3° glide path / mls elevation angle interception occurs between 6 km (3 nm) 19 km (10 nm) from threshold doc 8168 5 4 2 final approach length 5 4 2 1 the intermediate approach altitude/height generally intercepts glide path/mls elevation angle at heights from 300 m (1 000 ft) to 900 m (3 000 ft) above runway elevation in this case a 3° glide path interception occurs between 6 km (3 nm) 19 km (10 nm) from threshold.


9
Holding procedures buffer area how far beyond boundary of holding area extends buffer area 3 m ( ft) to 9 m (3 ft). doc 8168 holding area the holding area includes basic holding area the entry area the basic holding area the airspace required a holding pattern at a specific level based on allowances aircraft speed wind effect timing errors holding fix characteristics etc the entry area the airspace required the entry procedure buffer area an additional buffer area extends 9 3 km (5 0 nm) beyond boundary of holding area significant obstacles in buffer area are taken into consideration when determining minimum holding level.


10
Holding procedures entry related to three entry sectors in a holding pattern there a zone of flexibility on either side of sectors boundaries of 3 m ( ft) to 9 m (3 ft). Doc8168 pans atm chapter 1 holding criteria 1 4 entry 1 4 1 the entry into holding pattern shall be according to heading in relation to three entry sectors (see figure below) recognizing a zone of flexibility of 5° on either side of sector boundaries sector 1 parallel entry sector 2 offset entry sector 3 direct entry example zone of flexibility on either side of boundaries of a parallel entry sector.


11
Holding procedures offset entry above 14000 ft in still air outbound time on a 30° offset track limited to 3 m ( ft) to 9 m (3 ft). Icao doc8168 1 4 9 time/distance outbound the still air time flying outbound entry heading should not exceed a) one minute if at or below 4 250 m (14 000 ft) or b) one one half minutes if above 4 250 m (14 000 ft) where dme available length of outbound leg may be specified in terms of distance instead of time.


12
Holding procedures entry you have received instructions to hold over a radio fix the published procedure all turns to right 1 minute outbound inbound magnetic track 052° you are approaching fix on magnetic track 232° select appropriate entry procedure Either offset or parallel. The inbound leg the one that bring you back over holding fix here inbound leg 052° outbound leg 232° the aircraft approaching holding fix on a magnetic track 232° as drawn below you have two options since aircraft on two sectors if you choose offset entry if you choose parallel entry .


13
Holding procedures outbound time the outbound time in a holding pattern at 14000 ft or below in still air conditions Either offset or parallel. icao doc8168 1 4 9 time/distance outbound the still air time flying outbound entry heading should not exceed a) one minute if at or below 4 250 m (14 000 ft) or b) one one half minutes if above 4 250 m (14 000 ft) where dme available length of outbound leg may be specified in terms of distance instead of time .


14
Holding procedures if any reasons a pilot unable to conform to procedures normal conditions laid down any particular holding pattern he should Advise atc as early as possible. A standard holding pattern uses right hand turns takes approximately 4 minutes to complete (one minute each 180 degree turn two one minute straight ahead sections).


15
Holding proceduresthe outbound time in a holding pattern above 14000 ft in still air conditions Advise atc as early as possible. icao doc8168 1 4 9 time/distance outbound the still air time flying outbound entry heading should not exceed a) one minute if at or below 4 250 m (14 000 ft) or b) one one half minutes if above 4 250 m (14 000 ft) where dme available length of outbound leg may be specified in terms of distance instead of time .


16
Horizontal separation independent parallel approaches a minimum radar separation shall be provided until aircraft are established inbound on ils localizer course and/or mls final approach track this minimum when independent parallel approaches are being conducted Advise atc as early as possible. doc pans atm 4444 6 7 3 2 4 a minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) vertical separation or subject to radar system situation display capabilities a minimum of 5 6 km (3 0 nm) radar separation shall be provided until aircraft are established a) inbound on ils localizer course and/or mls final approach track and b) within normal operating zone (noz).


17
Horizontal separation independent parallel approaches such approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that missed approach track one approach diverges from missed approach track of adjacent approach at least Advise atc as early as possible. doc pans atm 4444 6 7 3 2 requirements and procedures for independent parallel approaches 6 7 3 2 1 independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that c) missed approach track one approach diverges at least 30 degrees from missed approach track ofthe adjacent approach .


18
Ifr cruising levels within controlled airspace shall be given as flight level fl Above transition altitude when applicable. doc pans atm 4444 6 7 3 2 requirements and procedures for independent parallel approaches 6 7 3 2 1 independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that c) missed approach track one approach diverges at least 30 degrees from missed approach track ofthe adjacent approach .


19
In pans ops abbreviation der stands doc 8168 Departure end of runway. doc pans atm 4444 6 7 3 2 requirements and procedures for independent parallel approaches 6 7 3 2 1 independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that c) missed approach track one approach diverges at least 30 degrees from missed approach track ofthe adjacent approach .


20
Independent parallel approaches requirement a no transgression zoneindependent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that a no transgression zone ntz established equidistant between extended runway centre lines this ntz must be at least Departure end of runway. no transgression zone (ntz) in context of independent parallel approaches a corridor of airspace of defined dimensions located centrally between two extended runway centre lines where a penetration an aircraft requires a controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened aircraft on adjacent approach pans atm doc 4444 6 7 3 2 requirements and procedures for independent parallel approaches 6 7 3 2 1 independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that g) a no transgression zone (ntz) at least 610 m (2 000 ft) wide established equidistant between extended runway centre lines is depicted on situation display .



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