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Minimum Radar Separation on final approachProvided there is no danger of wake turbulence the minimum radar separation provided between aircraft established on the same localizer course shall be not ? Diploma > registration

exemple question 122
icao doc 4444 procedures air navigation services air traffic management 8 7 use of ats surveillance systems in the air traffic control service 8 7 3 separation minima based on ats surveillance systems 8 7 3 1 unless otherwise prescribed in accordance with 8 7 3 2 (with respect to radar) 8 7 3 3 or 8 7 3 4 or chapter 6 (with respect to independent dependent parallel approaches) horizontal separation minimum based on radar and/or ads b shall be 9 3 km (5 0 nm) 8 7 3 2 the radar separation minimum in 8 7 3 1 may if so prescribed the appropriate ats authority be reduced but not below a) 5 6 km (3 0 nm) when radar capabilities at a given location so permit and b) 4 6 km (2 5 nm) between succeeding aircraft which are established on same final approach track within 18 5 km (10 nm) of runway end.


Non Radar Wake Turbulence separation minima for departing aircraft The minimum separation minimum that shall be applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and both ?

exemple question 123
Non radar wake turbulence separation minima departing aircraft the minimum separation minimum that shall be applied between a light or medium aircraft taking off behind a heavy aircraft and both are using same runway Doc4444 pans atm 5 8 3 departing aircraft 5 8 3 1 a minimum separation of 2 minutes shall be applied between a light or medium aircraft taking off behind a heavy aircraft or a light aircraft taking off behind a medium aircraft when aircraft are using a) the same runway b) parallel runways separated less than 760 m (2 500 ft) c) crossing runways if projected flight path of second aircraft will cross projected flight path of first aircraft at same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below d) parallel runways separated 760 m (2 500 ft) or more if projected flight path of second aircraft will cross projected flight path of first aircraft at same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below two minute separation following aircraft two minute wake turbulence separation crossing aircraft 5 8 3 2 a separation minimum of 3 minutes shall be applied between a light or medium aircraft when taking off behind a heavy aircraft or a light aircraft when taking off behind a medium aircraft from a) an intermediate part of same runway or b) an intermediate part of a parallel runway separated less than 760 m (2 500 ft).


Separation Methods and MinimaOne minute separation may be used between departing aircraft if they are to fly on tracks diverging by at least ?

exemple question 124
Separation methods and minimaone minute separation may be used between departing aircraft if they are to fly on tracks diverging at least 45° immediately after take off. Pans atm doc 4444 5 6 minimum separation between departing aircraft 5 6 1 one minute separation required if aircraft are to fly on tracks diverging at least 45 degrees immediately after take off so that lateral separation provided one minute separation between departing aircraft following tracks diverging at least 45 degrees.


exemple question 125
One of functions ensured a radar control unit the provision of approach control service To conduct surveillance radar approaches. Radar units are there to ensure that aircraft have adequate separation not to reduce it below normal minima.


exemple question 127
One of functions ensured a radar control unit the provision of approach control service To conduct precision radar approach (par). Pans atm doc4444 .


exemple question 128
Procedures related to communication failure ifr in vmc which procedure do you follow after having experienced a two way communication failure during a flight in accordance with ifr in vmc Continue to fly in vmc land at nearest suitable aerodrome report arrival the most expeditious means to appropriate air traffic control unit. Pans atm doc 4444 15 3 air ground communications failure 15 3 1 action air traffic control units when unable to maintain two way communication with an aircraft operating in a control area or control zone shall be as outlined in paragraphs which follow 15 3 2 as soon as it known that two way communication has failed action shall be taken to as certain whether aircraft able to receive transmissions from air traffic control unit requesting it to execute a specified manoeuvre which can be observed radar or ads b or to transmit if possible a specified signal in order to indicate acknowledgement 15 3 3 if aircraft fails to indicate that it able to receive acknowledge transmissions separation shall be maintained between aircraft having communication failure other aircraft based on assumption that aircraft will a) if in visual meteorological conditions 1) continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions 2) land at nearest suitable aerodrome and 3) report its arrival the most expeditious means to appropriate air traffic control unit or b) if in instrument meteorological conditions or when conditions are such that it does not appear likely that pilot will complete flight in accordance with a) 1) unless otherwise prescribed on basis of a regional air navigation agreement in airspace where procedural separation being applied maintain last assigned speed level or minimum flight altitude if higher a period of 20 minutes following aircraft's failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point thereafter adjust level speed in accordance with filed flight plan or 2) in airspace where an ats surveillance system used in provision of air traffic control maintain last assigned speed level or minimum flight altitude if higher a period of 7 minutes following i) time last assigned level or minimum flight altitude reached or ii) time transponder set to code 7600 or ads b transmitter set to indicate loss of air ground communications or iii) aircraft's failure to report its position over a compulsory reporting point whichever later thereafter adjust level speed in accordance with filed flight plan 3) when being vectored or having been directed atc to proceed offset using rnav without a specified limit proceed in most direct manner possible to rejoin current flight plan route no later than next significant point taking into consideration applicable minimum flight altitude 4) proceed according to current flight plan route to appropriate designated navigation aid or fix serving destination aerodrome and when required to ensure compliance with 5) hold over this aid or fix until commencement of descent 5) commence descent from navigation aid or fix specified in 4) at or as close as possible to expected approach time last received acknowledged or if no expected approach time has been received acknowledged at or as close as possible to estimated time of arrival resulting from current flight plan 6) complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified the designated navigation aid or fix and 7) land if possible within 30 minutes after estimated time of arrival specified in 5) or last acknowledged expected approach time whichever later.


exemple question 129
Radar controlled aircraft on intermediate or final approach may be requested to make minor speed adjustments atc these adjustments shall never be more than 2 knots not within 4 nm of threshold. Doc 4444 4 6 3 descending arriving aircraft 4 6 3 1 an aircraft should when practicable be authorized to absorb a period of notified terminal delay cruising at a reduced speed the latter portion of its flight 4 6 3 2 an arriving aircraft may be instructed to maintain its 'maximum spee 'minimum clean spee 'minimum spee or a specified speed note 'minimum clean spee signifies minimum speed at which an aircraft can be flown in a clean configuration i e without deployment of lift augmentation devices speed brakes or landing gear 4 6 3 3 speed reductions to less than 460 km/h (250 kt) ias turbojet aircraft during initial descent from cruising level should be applied only with concurrence of flight crew 4 6 3 4 instructions an aircraft to simultaneously maintain a high rate of descent reduce its speed should be avoided as such manoeuvres are normally not compatible any significant speed reduction during descent may require aircraft to temporarily level off to reduce speed before continuing descent 4 6 3 5 arriving aircraft should be permitted to operate in a clean configuration as long as possible below 4 550 m (fl 150) speed reductions turbojet aircraft to not less than 410 km/h (220 kt) ias which will normally be very close to minimum speed of turbojet aircraft in a clean configuration may be used 4 6 3 6 only minor speed adjustments not exceeding plus/minus 40 km/h (20 kt) ias should be used aircraft on intermediate final approach 4 6 3 7 speed control should not be applied to aircraft after passing a point 7 km (4 nm) from threshold on final approach note the flight crew has a requirement to fly a stabilized approach (airspeed configuration) typically 5 km (3 nm) from threshold.


8
Radar services precision surveillance radarat what distance from end of runway may a pilot expect that his aircraft can be identified on departure when atc equipped with and using psr 2 knots not within 4 nm of threshold. Pans atm doc4444 8 6 2 4 psr identification procedures 8 6 2 4 1 where psr used identification aircraft may be identified one or more of following procedures a) correlating a particular radar position indication with an aircraft reporting its position over or as bearing distance from a point shown on situation display by ascertaining that track of particular radar position consistent with aircraft path or reported heading b) correlating an observed radar position indication with an aircraft which known to have just departed provided that identification established within 2 km (1 nm) from end of runway used particular care should be taken to avoid confusion with aircraft holding over or overflying aerodrome or with aircraft departing from or making a missed approach over adjacent runways.


9
Radar services radar separation minimaunless otherwise prescribed the appropriate ats authority horizontal radar separation minimum shall be 2 knots not within 4 nm of threshold. pans atm doc4444 8 7 3 separation minima based on ats surveillance systems 8 7 3 1 unless otherwise prescribed in accordance with 8 7 3 2 (with respect to radar) 8 7 3 3 or 8 7 3 4 or chapter 6 (with respect to independent dependent parallel approaches) horizontal separation minimum based on radar and/or ads b shall be 9 3 km (5 0 nm).


10
Radar services radar separation minimawithout further condition when radar capabilities at a given location so permit minimum radar separation of 5 nm may be reduced to 2 knots not within 4 nm of threshold. pans atm doc 4444 8 7 3 separation minima based on ats surveillance systems 8 7 3 1 unless otherwise prescribed in accordance with 8 7 3 2 (with respect to radar) 8 7 3 3 or 8 7 3 4 or chapter 6 (with respect to independent dependent parallel approaches) horizontal separation minimum based on radar and/or ads b shall be 9 3 km (5 0 nm) 8 7 3 2 the radar separation minimum in 8 7 3 1 may if so prescribed the appropriate ats authority be reduced but not below a) 5 6 km (3 0 nm) when radar capabilities at a given location so permit.


11
Regarding aerodrome flight information service afis It can only supply limited services to users under no circumstances may it supply atc services. Aerodrome flight information service (afis) the term used to describe 'the provision of information useful the safe efficient conduct of aerodrome traffic at those aerodromes designated use international general aviation where appropriate air traffic services authority determines that provision of aerodrome control service not justified or not justified on a 24 hour basi afis should be provided a unit located at aerodrome identified as an 'afis unit' an afis unit will provide flight information service alerting service to aerodrome traffic the afis unit not an air traffic control unit except cases when relaying clearance from air traffic control (atc) afis officers (afiso) shall only pass information warnings to pilots pilots are therefore wholly responsible maintaining proper spacing in conformity with rules of air.


12
Required navigation performance rnp shall be prescribed By states on basis of regional air navigation agreements. Area navigation rnav (icao annex 11) a method of navigation permitting aircraft operations on any desired track within coverage of station referenced navigation signal or within limits of a self contained navigation system basic rnav (b rnav) systems require rnp 5 (required navigation performance 5) basic rnav requires a track keeping accuracy of +/ 5nm or better 95 of flight time precision rnav (prnav) systems require rnp 1 (+/ 1 0nm 95 of flight time).


13
Icao annex 11 air traffic services alerting service which phase of emergency declared if an aircraft known or believed to be subject of unlawful interference By states on basis of regional air navigation agreements. Icao annex 11 air traffic services alerting service incerfa code word used to designate an uncertainty phase alerfa code word used to designate an alert phase detresfa code word used to designate an distress phase annex 11 categorises emergency phases as follows a) uncertainty phase when 1) no communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of thirty minutes after time a communication should have been received or from time an unsuccessful attempt to establish communication with such aircraft was first made whichever the earlier or when 2) an aircraft fails to arrive within thirty minutes of estimated time of arrival last notified to or estimated air traffic services units whichever the later except when no doubt exists as to safety of aircraft its occupants b) alert phase when 1) following uncertainty phase subsequent attempts to establish communication with aircraft or inquiries to other relevant sources have failed to reveal any news of aircraft or when 2) an aircraft has been cleared to land fails to land within five minutes of estimated time of landing communication has not been re established with aircraft or when 3) information has been received which indicates that operating efficiency of aircraft has been impaired but not to extent that a forced landing likely except when evidence exists that would allay apprehension as to safety of aircraft its occupants or when 4) an aircraft known or believed to be subject of unlawful interference c) distress phase when 1) following alert phase further unsuccessful attempts to establish communication with aircraft more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to probability that aircraft in distress or when 2) fuel on board considered to be exhausted or to be insufficient to enable aircraft to reach safety or when 3) information received which indicates that operating efficiency of aircraft has been impaired to extent that a forced landing likely or when 4) information received or it reasonably certain that aircraft about to make or has made a forced landing except when there reasonable certainty that aircraft its occupants are not threatened grave imminent danger do not require immediate assistance.


14
Icao annex 12 search and rescue upon occurrence of which phase rcc rescue coordination center shall immediately alert search and rescue units and initiate any necessary action Alert phase (alerfa). Icao annex 12 chapter 5 operating procedures 5 1 information concerning emergencies 5 2 procedures rescue coordination centres during emergency phases 5 2 1 uncertainty phase upon occurrence of an uncertainty phase rescue coordination centre shall cooperate to utmost with air traffic services units other appropriate agencies services in order that incoming reports may be speedily evaluated 5 2 2 alert phase upon occurrence of an alert phase rescue coordination centre shall immediately alert search rescue units initiate any necessary action icao annex 11 air traffic services alerting service incerfa code word used to designate an uncertainty phase alerfa code word used to designate an alert phase detresfa code word used to designate an distress phase annex 11 categorises emergency phases as follows a) uncertainty phase when 1) no communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of thirty minutes after time a communication should have been received or from time an unsuccessful attempt to establish communication with such aircraft was first made whichever the earlier or when 2) an aircraft fails to arrive within thirty minutes of estimated time of arrival last notified to or estimated air traffic services units whichever the later except when no doubt exists as to safety of aircraft its occupants b) alert phase when 1) following uncertainty phase subsequent attempts to establish communication with aircraft or inquiries to other relevant sources have failed to reveal any news of aircraft or when 2) an aircraft has been cleared to land fails to land within five minutes of estimated time of landing communication has not been re established with aircraft or when 3) information has been received which indicates that operating efficiency of aircraft has been impaired but not to extent that a forced landing likely except when evidence exists that would allay apprehension as to safety of aircraft its occupants or when 4) an aircraft known or believed to be subject of unlawful interference c) distress phase when 1) following alert phase further unsuccessful attempts to establish communication with aircraft more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to probability that aircraft in distress or when 2) fuel on board considered to be exhausted or to be insufficient to enable aircraft to reach safety or when 3) information received which indicates that operating efficiency of aircraft has been impaired to extent that a forced landing likely or when 4) information received or it reasonably certain that aircraft about to make or has made a forced landing except when there reasonable certainty that aircraft its occupants are not threatened grave imminent danger do not require immediate assistance.


15
Separation vmc and own separation the 'clearance to fly maintaining own separation while in visual meterological condition may be given the appropriate ats authority this has to be requested the pilot of a controlled flight and has to be agreed the pilot of other aircraft the conditions are Airspace class d e vmc hours of daylight. pans atm doc 4444 5 9 clearances to fly maintaining own separation while in visual meteorological conditions when so requested an aircraft provided it agreed the pilot of other aircraft so authorized the appropriate ats authority an atc unit may clear a controlled flight including departing arriving flights operating in airspace classes d e in visual meteorological conditions during hours of daylight to fly subject to maintaining own separation to one other aircraft remaining in visual meteorological conditions when a controlled flight so cleared following shall apply a) clearance shall be a specified portion of flight at or below 3050 m (10000 ft) during climb or descentand subject to further restrictions as when prescribed on basis of regional air navigation agreements b) if there a possibility that flight under visual meteorological conditions may become impracticable an ifr flight shall be provided with alternative instructions to be complied with in event that flight in visual meteorological conditions (vmc) cannot be maintained the term of clearance c) pilot of an ifr flight on observing that conditions are deteriorating considering that operation in vmc will become impossible shall inform atc before entering instrument meteorological conditions (imc) shall proceed in accordance with alternative instructions given.


16
Separation in vicinity of aerodromes timed approaches a 'timed approach procedure' may be utilized as necessary in order to expedite approaches of a number of arriving aircraft this will be obtained requesting aircraft to Pass a specified point inbound at a previously notified time. pans atm doc 4444 6 5 6 2 1 timed approach procedures 6 5 6 2 1 1 subject to approval the appropriate ats authority following procedure should be utilized as necessary to expedite approaches of a number of arriving aircraft a) a suitable point on approach path which shall be capable of being accurately determined the pilot shall be specified to serve as a checkpoint in timing successive approaches b) aircraft shall be given a time at which to pass specified point inbound which time shall be determined with aim of achieving desired interval between successive landings on runway while respecting applicable separation minima at all times including period of runway occupancy 6 5 6 2 1 2 the time at which aircraft should pass specified point shall be determined the unit providing approach control service notified to aircraft sufficiently in advance to permit pilot to arrange flight path accordingly 6 5 6 2 1 3 each aircraft in approach sequence shall be cleared to pass specified point inbound at previously notified time or any revision thereof after preceding aircraft has reported passing point inbound.


17
Separation methods and minima essential traffic informationessential traffic Controlled traffic not separated from another controlled traffic with prescribed separation minima. pans atm doc4444 5 10 essential traffic information5 10 1 general 5 10 1 1 essential traffic that controlled traffic to which provision of separation atc applicable but which in relation to a particular controlled flight not or will not be separated from other controlled traffic the appropriate separation minimum 5 10 1 2 essential traffic information shall be given to controlled flights concerned whenever they constitute essential traffic to each other.


18
Separation methods and minima essential traffica vfr flight constitutes essential traffic to other vfr flights when operating in controlled airspace classified as Controlled traffic not separated from another controlled traffic with prescribed separation minima. Pans atm doc4444 5 10 essential traffic information5 10 1 general 5 10 1 1 essential traffic that controlled traffic to which provision of separation atc applicable but which in relation to a particular controlled flight not or will not be separated from other controlled traffic the appropriate separation minimum note pursuant to section 5 2 but subject to certain exceptions stated therein atc required to provide separation between ifr flights in airspace classes a to e between ifr vfr flights in classes b c [atc not required to provide separation between vfr flights except within airspace class b therefore ifr or vfr flights may constitute essential traffic to ifr traffic ifr flights may constitute essential traffic to vfr traffic however a vfr flight would not constitute essential traffic to other vfr flights except within class b airspace ] 5 10 1 2 essential traffic information shall be given to controlled flights concerned whenever they constitute essential traffic to each other.


19
Separation methods and minima general what are controlled traffic separation methods applied atc Vertical horizontal separation. Doc4444 procedures air navigation services air traffic management (pans atm) chapter 5 separation methods and minima 5 2 provisions for the separation of controlled traffic 5 2 1 general 5 2 1 1 vertical or horizontal separation shall be provided a) between all flights in class a b airspaces b) between ifr flights in class c d e airspaces c) between ifr flights vfr flights in class c airspace d) between ifr flights special vfr flights and e) between special vfr flights when so prescribed the appropriate ats authority.


20
Separation methods and minima vertical separation minima vsm according doc 4444 above flight level fl 290 vertical separation minimum vsm aircraft flying in same direction shall be Vertical horizontal separation. At fl 290 above if reduced vertical separation minima are not in use (and question doesn't specify 'in rvsm airspace') 4000 ft intervals are used to separate same direction aircraft (instead of 2000 ft intervals below fl 290) doc 4444 5 3 vertical separation5 5 3 2 vertical separation minimum the vertical separation minimum (vsm) shall be a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below fl 290 a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level.



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