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White or yellow crosses painted or located at the thresholds and on the runway indicate ? Deepen > topography

exemple question 132
This runway closed landing prohibited. icao annex 14 7 1 closed runways taxiways or parts thereof 7 1 4 characteristics the marking shall be white when displayed on a runway shall be yellow when displayed on a taxiway example mobile unit .


Mandatory instructions signs on an aerodrome shall have the following colours ?

exemple question 133
Mandatory instructions signs on an aerodrome shall have following colours White inscription on a red background. icao annex 14 characteristics 5 4 2 12 a mandatory instruction sign shall consist of an inscription in white on a red background you may notice 'yellow on black backgroun markings on appendix 14 example but text states application 5 4 2 1 a mandatory instruction sign shall be provided to identify a location beyond which an aircraft taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless authorized the aerodrome control tower 5 4 2 2 mandatory instruction signs shall include runway designation signs category i ii or iii holding position signs runway holding position signs road holding position signs no entry signs note see 5 4 7 specifications on road holding position signs 5 4 2 3 a pattern 'a' runway holding position marking shall be supplemented at a taxiway/runway intersection or a runway/runway intersection with a runway designation sign 5 4 2 4 a pattern 'b' runway holding position marking shall be supplemented with a category i ii or iii holding position sign 5 4 2 5 a pattern 'a' runway holding position marking at a runway holding position established in accordance with 3 12 3 shall be supplemented with a runway holding position sign note see 5 2 10 specifications on runway holding position marking.


A runway strip is ?

exemple question 134
A runway strip An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. icao annex 14 1 1 defintions runway strip a defined area including runway stopway if provided intended a) to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway and b) to protect aircraft flying over it during take off or landing operations.


exemple question 135
What the name a taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle designed to allow aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exits thereby minimizing runway occupancy time An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. annex 14 aerodrome rapid exit taxiway .


exemple question 136
Radio altimeter operating areaa radio altimeter operating area shall extend before threshold a distance of at least An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. icao annex 14 aerodromes 3 8 radio altimeter operating area general 3 8 1 recommendation a radio altimeter operating area should be established in pre threshold area of a precision approach runway length of area 3 8 2 recommendation a radio altimeter operating area should extend before threshold a distance of at least 300 m width of area 3 8 3 recommendation a radio altimeter operating area should extend laterally on each side of extended centre line of runway to a distance of 60 m except that when special circumstances so warrant distance may be reduced to no less than 30 m if an aeronautical study indicates that such reduction would not affect safety of operations of aircraft and 4 3 radio altimeter operating area in order to accommodate aeroplanes making auto coupled approaches automatic landings (irrespective of weather conditions) it desirable that slope changes be avoided or kept to a minimum on a rectangular area at least 300 m long before threshold of a precision approach runway the area should be symmetrical about extended centre line 120 m wide when special circumstances so warrant width may be reduced to no less than 60 m if an aeronautical study indicates that such reduction would not affect safety of operations of aircraft this desirable because these aeroplanes are equipped with a radio altimeter final height flare guidance when aeroplane above terrain immediately prior to threshold radio altimeter will begin to provide information to automatic pilot auto flare where slope changes cannot be avoided rate of change between two consecutive slopes should not exceed 2 per cent per 30 m.


exemple question 137
Approach lighting systems the length of a simple approach lighting system shall consist of a row of lights on extended centre line of runway extending over a distance of not less than An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. icao annex 14 aerodromes simple approach lighting system location 5 3 4 2 a simple approach lighting system shall consist of a row of lights on extended centre line of runway extending whenever possible over a distance of not less than 420 m from threshold with a row of lights forming a crossbar 18 m or 30 m in length at a distance of 300 m from threshold 5 3 4 3 the lights forming crossbar shall be as nearly as practicable in a horizontal straight line at right angles to bisected by line of centre line lights the lights of crossbar shall be spaced so as to produce a linear effect except that when a crossbar of 30 m used gaps may be left on each side of centre line these gaps shall be kept to a minimum to meet local requirements each shall not exceed 6 m.


exemple question 138
The colour of a runway designation marking on a paved runway shall be An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. icao annex 14 aerodromes volume 1 chapter 5 visual aids for navigation 5 2 markings 5 2 1 4 runway markings shall be white 5 2 1 5 taxiway markings runway turn pad markings aircraft stand markings shall be yellow 5 2 1 6 apron safety lines shall be of a conspicuous colour which shall contrast with that used aircraft stand markings.


8
Annex 14 to convention on international civil aviation contains standards and recommended practices sarps An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. icao annex 14 aerodromes volume 1 chapter 5 visual aids for navigation 5 2 markings 5 2 1 4 runway markings shall be white 5 2 1 5 taxiway markings runway turn pad markings aircraft stand markings shall be yellow 5 2 1 6 apron safety lines shall be of a conspicuous colour which shall contrast with that used aircraft stand markings.


9
A detailed description of visual ground aids can be found in icao An area intended to reduce risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway. icao annex 14 aerodromes volume 1 chapter 5 visual aids for navigation 5 2 markings 5 2 1 4 runway markings shall be white 5 2 1 5 taxiway markings runway turn pad markings aircraft stand markings shall be yellow 5 2 1 6 apron safety lines shall be of a conspicuous colour which shall contrast with that used aircraft stand markings.


10
Annex 14 rescue and fire fightingthe most important factors bearing on effective rescue in a survivable aircraft accident are The training received effectiveness of equipment the speed with which personnel equipment designated rescue fire fighting purposes can be put into use. Ecqb04 october 2017 annex 14 rescue fire fighting the most important factors bearing on effective rescue in a survivable aircraft accident are training received effectiveness of equipment and speed with which personnel equipment designated rescue fire fighting purposes can be put into use.


11
Annex 14 rescue and fire fightingthe principal objective of a rescue and firefighting service The training received effectiveness of equipment the speed with which personnel equipment designated rescue fire fighting purposes can be put into use. Ecqb04 october 2017 annex 14 rescue fire fighting the principal objective of a rff service to save lives in event of an aircraft accident or incident occurring at or in immediate vicinity of an airport the rff service provided to create maintain survivable conditions to provide egress routes occupants to initiate rescue of those occupants unable to make their escape without direct aid 1 1 2 this service must assume at all times possibility of need extinguishing a fire which may a) exist at time an aircraft landing taking off taxiing parked etc or b) occur immediately following an aircraft accident or incident or c) occur at any time during rescue operations.


12
Annex 14 rescue and fire fightingwhat meant the term 'response time' response time considered to be time Between initial call to rff service the time when first responding vehicle(s) is(are) in position to apply foam. Ecqb04 october 2017 annex 14 rescue fire fighting the operational objective of rff service should be to achieve response times of two minutes not exceeding three minutes to end of each runway as well as to any other part of movement area in optimum conditions of visibility surface conditions response time considered to be time between initial call to rff service the time when first responding vehicle(s) is(are) in position to apply foam at a rate of at least 50 per cent of discharge rate specified in table 2 3 determination of realistic response times should be made rff vehicles operating from their normal locations not from positions adopted solely test purposes.


13
Annex 14 rescue and fire fightingthe operational objective of rescue and fire fighting service should be to achieve response times of Two minutes not exceeding three minutes to end of each runway as well as to any other part of movement area in optimum conditions of visibility surface conditions. Ecqb04 october 2017 annex 14 rescue fire fighting the operational objective of rff service should be to achieve response times of two minutes not exceeding three minutes to end of each runway as well as to any other part of movement area in optimum conditions of visibility surface conditions response time considered to be time between initial call to rff service the time when first responding vehicle(s) is(are) in position to apply foam at a rate of at least 50 per cent of discharge rate specified in table 2 3 determination of realistic response times should be made rff vehicles operating from their normal locations not from positions adopted solely test purposes.


14
A no entry signal has to be established as follows On both sides at beginning of affected zone. icao annex 14 location 5 4 2 10 a not entry sign shall be located at beginning of area to which entrance prohibited on each side of taxiway as viewed the pilot.


15
Annex 14 aerodromes the height of signs near a runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to Preserve clearance propellers the engine pods of jet aircraft. icao annex 14 location 5 4 2 10 a not entry sign shall be located at beginning of area to which entrance prohibited on each side of taxiway as viewed the pilot.


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Annex 14 aerodromes the height of markers and elevated lights near a runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to Preserve clearance propellers the engine pods of jet aircraft. icao annex 14 location 5 4 2 10 a not entry sign shall be located at beginning of area to which entrance prohibited on each side of taxiway as viewed the pilot.


17
If more than 25 of a runway covered 3mm of water runway considered to be Preserve clearance propellers the engine pods of jet aircraft. Ecqb04 november 2017 air ops terminology (2) contaminated runway a runway considered to be contaminated when more than 25 of runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within required length width being used covered the following (i) surface water more than 3 mm (0 125 in) deep or slush or loose snow equivalent to more than 3 mm (0 125 in) of water (ii) snow which has been compressed into a solid mass which resists further compression will hold together or break into lumps if picked up (compacted snow) or (iii) ice including wet ice (10) wet runway a runway considered wet when runway surface covered with water or equivalent less than specified in sub paragraph(2) above or when there sufficient moisture on runway surface to cause it to appear reflective but without significant areas of standing water.


18
Declared distances tora take off r available The length of runway declared available suitable the ground run of an aeroplane taking off. icao annex 14 tora (take off run available) is the length of runway declared available suitable the ground run of an aeroplane taking off toda (take off distance available) is the length of take off run available plus length of clearway if provided asda (acceleration stop distance available) is the length of take off run available plus length of stop way if provided lda (landing distance available) is the length of runway which declared available suitable the ground run of an aeroplane landing.


19
The four declared distances tora toda asda lda are equal to length of runway if There no stopway or clearway no displaced threshold. icao annex 14 where a runway not provided with a stopway or clearway the threshold located at extremity of runway four declared distance should normally be equal to length of runway as shown on example a.


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Declared distances the four main most important declared runway distances are Tora toda asda lda. icao annex 14 tora (take off run available) is the length of runway declared available suitable the ground run of an aeroplane taking off toda (take off distance available) is the length of take off run available plus length of clearway if provided asda (acceleration stop distance available) is the length of take off run available plus length of stop way if provided lda (landing distance available) is the length of runway which declared available suitable the ground run of an aeroplane landing.



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